"Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors ..." -- U.S. Constitution
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Endorsed by 2,110
State Legislators
In addition to 1,129 state legislative sponsors (shown above), 981 other legislators have cast recorded votes in favor of the National Popular Vote bill.
Progress by State

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Short Explanation
The National Popular Vote bill would guarantee a majority of the Electoral College to the presidential candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The bill would reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote in the Electoral College reflects the choice of the nation's voters for President of the United States.   more
11 Enactments
The National Popular Vote bill has been enacted into law in states possessing 165 electoral votes — 61% of the 270 electoral votes needed to activate the legislation.

  • Maryland - 10 votes
  • Massachusetts - 11
  • Washington - 12 votes
  • Vermont - 3 votes
  • Rhode Island - 4 votes
  • DC - 3 votes
  • Hawaii - 4 votes
  • New Jersey - 14 votes
  • Illinois - 20 votes
  • New York - 29 votes
  • California - 55 votes

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    Advisory Board
    John Anderson (R-I–IL)
    Birch Bayh (D–IN)
    John Buchanan (R–AL)
    Tom Campbell (R–CA)
    Tom Downey (D–NY)
    D. Durenberger (R–MN)
    Jake Garn (R–UT)
    What Do You Think
    How should we elect the President?
    The candidate who gets the most votes in all 50 states.
    The current Electoral College system.

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    Massachusetts

    August 4, 2010 — Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick signed the signed the National Popular Vote bill, making Massachusetts the sixth state to enact the bill and giving the National Popular Vote bill 27% of the electoral votes needed to bring it into effect.
    Associated Press article      Boston Globe article      Enhanced On-Line News


    Governor Deval Patrick (seated) signs the National Popular Vote bill. From left to right, Senator Tom Kennedy, Representative Mike Moran, Rep. Bruce Ayers, Rep. Tom Stanley, Pam Wilmot (President of Common Cause Massachusetts), Senator Jamie Eldridge , Rep. Jay Kaufman (clapping), Massachusetts Legislative Counsel Gavi Wolf ACLU (back), Rep. Anthony Cabral (front), aide to Sen Kennedy (back), Common Cause board member Bill Schmidt, Massachusetts Sierra Club Director Jay McCaffrey Director, Common Cause board member Dick Terry.
    Photo courtesy of Holland Hinman/Governor's Office


    Governor Deval Patrick, legislative leaders, and Pam Wilmot of Common Cause discuss National Popular Vote bill. From left to right, Rep Frank Smizik, James Cofield (Chair of the Black Political Task Force), Pam Wilmot (President of Common Cause Massachusetts), Representative Mike Moran, Governor Deval Patrick, and Senator Tom Kennedy.
    Photo courtesy of Holland Hinman/Governor's Office

    On July 27, 2010, the Massachusetts Legislature completed action on the National Popular Vote bill [H 4156] and sent it to Governor Deval Patrick for his consideration. The Senate's final vote on enactment was 28-9.      New York Times article      Boston Herald article      Business Wire      Boston Globe article      Op-Ed by Michael Dukakis

    On July 15, 2010, the Massachusetts Senate passed the National Popular Vote bill [H 4156] by a 28-10 vote.

    On June 2, 2010, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed the National Popular Vote bill [H 4156] by a 113-35 vote.      Boston Globe article      Metro West News editorial      Boston Globe column by Scot Lehigh      Blue Mass blog by Pam Wilmot


    Massachusetts House of Representatives debates bill


    National Popular Vote bill passes 113-35


    A survey of 800 Massachusetts voters conducted on May 23-24, 2010 showed 72% overall support for the idea that the President ofthe United States should be the candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states.      WWLP News story

    Voters were asked:

    "How do you think we should elect the President: Should it be the candidate who gets the most votes in all 50 states, or the current electoral college system?"

    By political affiliation, support for a national popular vote was 86% among Democrats, 54% among Republicans, and 68% among others. By gender, support was 85% among women and 60% among men. By age, support was 85% among 18-29 year olds, 75% among 30-45 year olds, 69% among 46-65 year olds, and 72% for those older than 65. By race, support was 72% among whites, 82% among African-Americans, and 58% among Others. The survey was conducted by Public Policy Polling, and has a margin of error of plus or minus 3 1/2%.

    Massachusetts voters were also asked a 3-way question:

    "Do you prefer a system where the candidate who gets the most votes in all 50 states on a nationwide basis is elected President, or one like the one used in Nebraska and Maine where electoral voters are dispensed by Congressional district, or one in which all of the state's electoral votes would be given to the statewide winner?"

    The results of this three-way question were that 68% favored a national popular vote, 16% favored awarding its electoral votes by congressional district, and 16% favored the existing statewide winner-take-all system (i.e., awarding all of a state's electoral votes to the candidate who receives the most votes statewide).      Massachusetts May 2010 poll

    On July 24, 2009, the Committee on Election Laws favorably reported a new bill (H 4156).

    On January 13, 2009, Representatives Charles A. Murphy and Garrett J. Bradley introduced the National Popular Vote bill (H660) in the Massachusetts House for 2009. The bill is co-sponsored by Representatives Carlo P. Basile, James Dwyer, Lori Ehrlich, Jay R. Kaufman, John D. Keenan, William Lantigua, Charles A. Murphy, Byron Rushing, Tom Sannicandro, Cleon H. Turner, Alice K. Wolf, Geraldo Alicea, Cory Atkins, Theodore C. Speliotis, Frank I. Smizik, William Smitty Pignatelli, Martha M. Walz, Steven J. D'Amico, John P. Fresolo, Cheryl A. Coakley-Rivera, Stephen Kulik, Antonio F.D. Cabral, Carl M. Sciortino, Jr., Sarah K. Peake, David B. Sullivan, James J. O'Day, Louis L. Kafka, Mark V. Falzone, Christopher J. Donelan, Peter v. Kocot, Anne M. Gobi, Brian P. Wallace, Timothy J. Toomey, Jr., Joyce A. Spiliotis, Denise Provost, Kay Khan, Alice Hanlon Peisch, John W. Scibak, Mary E. Grant, Kevin J. Murphy, Michael J. Moran, Thomas M. Stanley, Robert L. Rice, Jr., Paul McMurtry, Jonathan Hecht, Pam Richardson, James B. Eldridge, Christopher J. Donelan, James E. Vallee, Barry R. Finegold, Thomas P. Conroy, Martin J. Walsh, Denis E. Guyer, Karen E. Spilka, Robert A. O'Leary, Anthony W. Petruccelli, Alice Hanlon Peisch, James R. Miceli, Cynthia Stone Creem, Kevin Aguiar, Sean Garballey, Demetrius J. Atsalis, Bill Bowles, and James Cantwell.      Milford Daily News article

    On January 12, 2009, Senator Joan M. Menard introduced the National Popular Vote bill (S353) in the Massachusetts Senate for 2009. The bill is co-sponsored by Senators Susan C. Tucker, Harriette L. Chandler, Patricia D. Jehlen, Thomas P. Kennedy, Kenneth J. Donnelly, James B. Eldridge, Karen E. Spilka, Anthony W. Petruccelli, Robert A. O'Leary, Cynthia Stone Creem, and Thomas M. McGee.

    On July 30, 2008, the Massachusetts Senate passed the National Popular Vote bill on third reading (and engrossment). Immediately beforehand, a crippling amendment was defeated by a vote of 27 to 9. Under Massachusetts legislative procedures, an additional vote is required in both the House and Senate to transmit the bill to the Governor. Although this vote was on the agenda on the session's last day (July 31), no action was taken.      Associated Press story      Boston Globe 1st editorial      Cape Cod Times editorial      Enterprise News editorial      Boston Herald column      Boston Globe 2nd editorial      Boston Herald article      See polling results      Boston Herald article on Michael Dukakis Letter to Massachusetts Legislators      Boston Globe April 19, 2009 editorial      Boston Globe June 22, 2008 editorial

    On July 9, 2008, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed the National Popular Vote bill.      2008 Dukakis letter to Legislature      Alexander Keyssar letter to Legislature

    A survey of 800 Massachusetts voters conducted on June 3, 2008 showed 73% overall support for a national popular vote for President. By party, support was 82% among Democrats, 66% among independents, and 54% among Republicans. By age, support was 74% among 18-29 year olds, 69% among 30-45 year olds, 72% among 46-65 year olds, and 78% for those older than 65. By gender, support was 80% among women and 63% among men. By race, support was 75% among whites (representing 88% of respondents), 59% among African-Americans (representing 4% of respondents), 66% among Hispanics (representing 1% of respondents), and 57% among Others (representing 7% of respondents). The survey has a margin of error of plus or minus 3 1/2%.      Massachusetts June 2008 poll


    National Popular Vote bill passes Massachusetts House 116-37


    Massachusetts House of Representatives

    On October 5, 2007, the Joint Committee on Election Laws voted favorably on the National Popular Vote bill in Massachusetts.

    The National Popular Vote bill was filed on January 26, 2007 in the Massachusetts State Senate (S445, Status of S445) (S452) by Senator Joan Menard and Senator Robert Havern and in the House of Representatives (H678) (H710) by Representatives Martin J. Walsh and Charles A. Murphy.   Patriot Ledger editorial   Milford Daily News editorial

    Joining them in cosponsoring the bill are a bi-partisan group of 24 additional lawmakers, including Senators Jarrett T. Barrios, Patricia D. Jehlen, Michael W. Morrissey, and Robert O-Leary and Representatives Cory Atkins, Antonio F. D. Cabral, Steven D'Amico, James B. Eldridge, Lewis G. Evangelidis, Michael E. Festa, Mary E. Grant, Jay R. Kaufman, Stephen Kulik, Barbara A. L'Italien, J. James Marzilli, Jr., Matthew C. Patrick, Douglas W. Petersen, Denise Provost, Kathi-Anne Reinstein, John W. Scibak, Carl M. Sciortino, Jr., Frank Israel Smizik, Todd M. Smola, and Brian P. Wallace.

    Maryland State Senator Jamie Raskin speaks in Boston on September 19, 2007 on the National Popular Vote bill in Massachusetts. Raskin was the Senate sponsor of the bill in Maryland, was formerly Assistant Attorney General of Massachusetts, and was formerly editor of the Harvard Law Review. He is currently a law professor in Washington, DC and teaches constitutional law at Washington College of Law at the American University.

    Maryland State Senator Jamie Raskin and National Popular Vote President Barry Fadem testify at hearing of Joint Committee on Election Laws of the Massachusetts General Court on September 19, 2007




    Massachusetts Senator Joan M. Menard
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    Massachusetts Senator Robert A. Havern
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    Massachusetts Rep. Martin J. Walsh
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    Massachusetts Rep. Charles A. Murphy
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    Massachusetts Rep. Cory Atkins
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    Massachusetts Rep. Antonio F. D. Cabral
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    Massachusetts Rep. Steven D'Amico


    Massachusetts Rep. James B. Eldridge
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    Massachusetts Rep. Lewis G. Evangelidis
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    Massachusetts Rep. Michael E. Festa
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    Massachusetts Rep. Mary E. Grant
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    Massachusetts Rep. Jay R. Kaufman
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    Massachusetts Rep. Stephen Kulik
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    Massachusetts Rep. Barbara A. L'Italien
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    Massachusetts Rep. J. James Marzilli, Jr.
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    Massachusetts Rep. Matthew C. Patrick
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    Massachusetts Rep. Douglas W. Petersen
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    Massachusetts Rep. Denise Provost
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    Massachusetts Rep. Kathi-Anne Reinstein
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    Massachusetts Rep. John W. Scibak
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    Massachusetts Rep. Carl M. Sciortino, Jr.
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    Massachusetts Rep. Frank Israel Smizik
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    Massachusetts Rep. Todd M. Smola
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    Massachusetts Rep. Brian P. Wallace
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    Massachusetts Senator Jarrett T. Barrios
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    Massachusetts Senator Patricia D. Jehlen
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    Massachusetts Senator Michael W. Morrissey
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    Massachusetts Senator Robert O-Leary
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    Massachusetts Rep. Alice Hanlon Peisch
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    Massachusetts Rep. Alice K. Wolf
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    Massachusetts Rep. Anne M. Gobi
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    Massachusetts Rep. Barry R. Finegold
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    Massachusetts Rep. Bill Bowles
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    Massachusetts Rep. Byron Rushing
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    Massachusetts Rep. Carlo Basile
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    Massachusetts Rep. Cheryl A. Coakley-Rivera
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    Massachusetts Rep. Christopher J. Donelan
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    Massachusetts Rep. Cleon H. Turner
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    Massachusetts Rep. David B. Sullivan
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    Massachusetts Rep. Demetrius J. Atsalis
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    Massachusetts Rep. Denis Guyer
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    Massachusetts Rep. Garrett J. Bradley
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    Massachusetts Rep. Geraldo Alicea
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    Massachusetts Rep. James Cantwell
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    Massachusetts Rep. James Dwyer
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    Massachusetts Rep. James E. Vallee
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    Massachusetts Rep. James J. O'Day
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    Massachusetts Rep. James R. Miceli
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    Massachusetts Rep. John D. Keenan
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    Massachusetts Rep. John P. Fresolo
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    Massachusetts Rep. Jonathan Hecht
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    Massachusetts Rep. Joyce A. Spiliotis
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    Massachusetts Rep. Kay Khan
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    Massachusetts Rep. Kevin Aguiar
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    Massachusetts Rep. Kevin J. Murphy
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    Massachusetts Rep. Lori Ehrlich
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    Massachusetts Rep. Louis L. Kafka
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    Massachusetts Rep. Mark V. Falzone
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    Massachusetts Rep. Martha M. Walz
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    Massachusetts Rep. Michael J. Moran
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    Massachusetts Rep. Pam Richardson
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    Massachusetts Rep. Paul McMurtry
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    Massachusetts Rep. Peter V. Kocot
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    Massachusetts Rep. Robert L. Rice, Jr
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    Massachusetts Rep. Sarah K. Peake
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    Massachusetts Rep. Sean Garballey
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    Massachusetts Rep. Theodore C. Speliotis
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    Massachusetts Rep. Thomas M. Stanley
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    Massachusetts Rep. Thomas P. Conroy
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    Massachusetts Rep. Timothy J. Toomey, Jr
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    Massachusetts Rep. Tom Sannicandro
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    Massachusetts Rep. William Lantigua
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    Massachusetts Rep. William Smitty Pignatelli
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    Massachusetts Senator Anthony W. Petruccelli
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    Massachusetts Senator Cynthia Stone Creem
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    Massachusetts Senator Harriette L. Chandler
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    Massachusetts Senator James B. Eldridge
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    Massachusetts Senator Karen E. Spilka
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    Massachusetts Senator Kenneth J. Donnelly
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    Massachusetts Senator Susan C. Tucker
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    Massachusetts Senator Thomas M. McGee
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    Massachusetts Senator Thomas P. Kennedy
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    Under the current system of electing the President, a candidate may win a majority of the Electoral College without having a majority of the nationwide popular vote. The National Popular Vote bill would reform the Electoral College by guaranteeing the Presidency to the presidential candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states (and the District of Columbia). The bill would enact the proposed interstate compact entitled the "Agreement Among the States to Elect the President by National Popular Vote." The compact would take effect only when enacted, in identical form, by states possessing a majority of the membership of the Electoral College (that is 270 of 538 electoral votes). Under the compact, all of the members of the Electoral College from all states belonging to the compact would be from the same political party as the winner of nationwide popular vote. Thus, the presidential candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states (and the District of Columbia) will be guaranteed a majority of the Electoral College, and hence the Presidency. Because the compact guarantees a majority of the Electoral College to the winner of most popular votes nationwide, the compact has the additional benefit of eliminating the possibility that a presidential election might be thrown into the U.S. House of Representatives (with each state casting one vote).


    Reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote reflects the nationwide popular vote for President